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Storytelling taps into existing knowledge and creates bridges both culturally and motivationally toward a solution. Stories are effective educational tools because listeners become engaged and therefore remember. Storytelling can be seen as a foundation for learning and teaching. While the storylistener is engaged, they are able to imagine new perspectives, inviting a transformative and empathetic experience. Together a storyteller and listener can seek best practices and invent new solutions.

Because stories often have multiple layers of meanings, listeners have to listen closely to identify the underlying knowledge in the story. Storytelling is used as a tool to teach children the importance of respect through the practice of listening. To teach this a Kinesthetic learning style would be used, involving the listeners through music, dream interpretation, or dance.

For indigenous cultures of the Americas, storytelling is used as an oral form of language associated with practices and values essential to developing one’s identity.

This is because everyone in the community can add their own touch and perspective to the narrative collaboratively — both individual and culturally shared perspectives have a place in the co-creation of the story.

Oral storytelling in indigenous communities differs from other forms of stories because they are told not only for entertainment, but for teaching values. Furthermore, Storytelling is a way to teach younger members of indigenous communities about their culture and their identities. In Donna Eder’s study, Navajos were interviewed about storytelling practices that they have had in the past and what changes they want to see in the future.

They notice that storytelling makes an impact on the lives of the children of the Navajos. According to some of the Navajos that were interviewed, storytelling is one of many main practices that teaches children the important principles to live a good life. For some indigenous people, experience has no separation between the physical world and the spiritual world. Thus, some indigenous people communicate to their children through ritual, storytelling, or dialogue.

Community values, learned through storytelling, help to guide future generations and aid in identity formation. In the Quechua community of Highland Peru, there is no separation between adults and children.

This allows for children to learn storytelling through their own interpretations of the given story. Therefore, children in the Quechua community are encouraged to listen to the story that is being told in order to learn about their identity and culture.

Sometimes, children are expected to sit quietly and listen actively. This enables them to engage in activities as independent learners. This teaching practice of storytelling allowed children to formulate ideas based on their own experiences and perspectives. In Navajo communities, for children and adults, storytelling is one of the many effective ways to educate both the young and old about their cultures, identities and history.

Storytelling help the Navajos know who they are, where they come from and where they belong. Storytelling in indigenous cultures is sometimes passed on by oral means in a quiet and relaxing environment, which usually coincides with family or tribal community gatherings and official events such as family occasions, rituals, or ceremonial practices.

This is because narrators may choose to insert new elements into old stories dependent upon the relationship between the storyteller and the audience, making the story correspond to each unique situation. Indigenous cultures also use instructional ribbing — a playful form of correcting children’s undesirable behavior— in their stories.

For example, the Ojibwe or Chippewa tribe uses the tale of an owl snatching away misbehaving children. The caregiver will often say, „The owl will come and stick you in his ears if you don’t stop crying!

There are various types of stories among many indigenous communities. Communication in Indigenous American communities is rich with stories, myths, philosophies and narratives that serve as a means to exchange information.

Very often, the stories are used to instruct and teach children about cultural values and lessons. In the Lakota Tribe of North America, for example, young girls are often told the story of the White Buffalo Calf Woman , who is a spiritual figure that protects young girls from the whims of men.

In the Odawa Tribe , young boys are often told the story of a young man who never took care of his body, and as a result, his feet fail to run when he tries to escape predators. This story serves as an indirect means of encouraging the young boys to take care of their bodies. Narratives can be shared to express the values or morals among family, relatives, or people who are considered part of the close-knit community.

Many stories in indigenous American communities all have a „surface” story, that entails knowing certain information and clues to unlocking the metaphors in the story.

The underlying message of the story being told, can be understood and interpreted with clues that hint to a certain interpretation. Stories in indigenous cultures encompass a variety of values. These values include an emphasis on individual responsibility, concern for the environment and communal welfare. Stories are based on values passed down by older generations to shape the foundation of the community.

Storytelling in the Navajo community for example allows for community values to be learned at different times and places for different learners. Stories are told from the perspective of other people, animals, or the natural elements of the earth.

Typically, stories are used as an informal learning tool in Indigenous American communities, and can act as an alternative method for reprimanding children’s bad behavior. In this way, stories are non-confrontational, which allows the child to discover for themselves what they did wrong and what they can do to adjust the behavior. Parents in the Arizona Tewa community, for example, teach morals to their children through traditional narratives. Through storytelling, the Tewa community emphasizes the traditional wisdom of the ancestors and the importance of collective as well as individual identities.

Indigenous communities teach children valuable skills and morals through the actions of good or mischievous stock characters while also allowing room for children to make meaning for themselves. By not being given every element of the story, children rely on their own experiences and not formal teaching from adults to fill in the gaps. When children listen to stories, they periodically vocalize their ongoing attention and accept the extended turn of the storyteller.

The emphasis on attentiveness to surrounding events and the importance of oral tradition in indigenous communities teaches children the skill of keen attention.

For example, Children of the Tohono O’odham American Indian community who engaged in more cultural practices were able to recall the events in a verbally presented story better than those who did not engage in cultural practices. Children in indigenous communities can also learn from the underlying message of a story. For example, in a nahuatl community near Mexico City , stories about ahuaques or hostile water dwelling spirits that guard over the bodies of water, contain morals about respecting the environment.

If the protagonist of a story, who has accidentally broken something that belongs to the ahuaque, does not replace it or give back in some way to the ahuaque, the protagonist dies. Storytelling also serves to deliver a particular message during spiritual and ceremonial functions. In the ceremonial use of storytelling, the unity building theme of the message becomes more important than the time, place and characters of the message.

Once the message is delivered, the story is finished. As cycles of the tale are told and retold, story units can recombine, showing various outcomes for a person’s actions.

Storytelling has been assessed for critical literacy skills and the learning of theatre-related terms by the nationally recognized storytelling and creative drama organization, Neighborhood Bridges, in Minneapolis.

Storytelling has also been studied as a way to investigate and archive cultural knowledge and values within indigenous American communities. Iseke’s study [57] on the role of storytelling in the Metis community, showed promise in furthering research about the Metis and their shared communal atmosphere during storytelling events.

Iseke focused on the idea of witnessing a storyteller as a vital way to share and partake in the Metis community, as members of the community would stop everything else they were doing in order to listen or „witness” the storyteller and allow the story to become a „ceremonial landscape,” or shared reference, for everyone present. This was a powerful tool for the community to engage and teach new learner shared references for the values and ideologies of the Metis. Through storytelling, the Metis cemented the shared reference of personal or popular stories and folklore , which members of the community can use to share ideologies.

In the future, Iseke noted that Metis elders wished for the stories being told to be used for further research into their culture, as stories were a traditional way to pass down vital knowledge to younger generations. For the stories we read, the „neuro-semantic encoding of narratives happens at levels higher than individual semantic units and that this encoding is systematic across both individuals and languages. Storytelling in serious application contexts, as e. Serious storytelling applies storytelling „outside the context of entertainment, where the narration progresses as a sequence of patterns impressive in quality Some approaches treat narratives as politically motivated stories, stories empowering certain groups and stories giving people agency.

Instead of just searching for the main point of the narrative, the political function is demanded through asking, „Whose interest does a personal narrative serve”? Political theorist, Hannah Arendt argues that storytelling transforms private meaning to public meaning. Therapeutic storytelling is the act of telling one’s story in an attempt to better understand oneself or one’s situation.

Oftentimes, these stories affect the audience in a therapeutic sense as well, helping them to view situations similar to their own through a different lens. Language is utilised to bear witness to their lives”. In this way, that telling and retelling of the narrative serves to „reattach portions of the narrative”.

Regardless, these silences are not as empty as they appear, and it is only this act of storytelling that can enable the teller to fill them back in. Psychodrama uses re-enactment of a personal, traumatic event in the life of a psychodrama group participant as a therapeutic methodology, first developed by psychiatrist, J. Moreno , M. This therapeutic use of storytelling was incorporated into Drama Therapy , known in the field as „Self Revelatory Theater.

Therapeutic storytelling is also used to promote healing through transformative arts , where a facilitator helps a participant write and often present their personal story to an audience. The art of narrative is, by definition, an aesthetic enterprise, and there are a number of artistic elements that typically interact in well-developed stories.

Storytelling festivals typically feature the work of several storytellers and may include workshops for tellers and others who are interested in the art form or other targeted applications of storytelling. Elements of the oral storytelling art form often include the tellers encouragement to have participants co-create an experience by connecting to relatable elements of the story and using techniques of visualization the seeing of images in the mind’s eye , and use vocal and bodily gestures to support understanding.

In many ways, the art of storytelling draws upon other art forms such as acting , oral interpretation and Performance Studies. In , Richard Wyche, a professor of literature at the University of Tennessee created the first organized storytellers league of its kind.

Wyche served as its president for 16 years, facilitated storytelling classes, and spurred an interest in the art. Several other storytelling organizations started in the U. NSN is a professional organization that helps to organize resources for tellers and festival planners. The UK’s Society for Storytelling was founded in , bringing together tellers and listeners, and each year since has run a National Storytelling Week the first week of February. Currently, there are dozens of storytelling festivals and hundreds of professional storytellers around the world, [70] [71] and an international celebration of the art occurs on World Storytelling Day.

In oral traditions, stories are kept alive by being told again and again. The material of any given story naturally undergoes several changes and adaptations during this process. When and where oral tradition was superseded by print media , the literary idea of the author as originator of a story’s authoritative version changed people’s perception of stories themselves.

In centuries following, stories tended to be seen as the work of individuals rather than a collective effort. Only recently when a significant number of influential authors began questioning their own roles, the value of stories as such — independent of authorship — was again recognized.

Literary critics such as Roland Barthes even proclaimed the Death of the Author. Our laptops have been upgraded several times but they are about 8 years old and still running quite well.

My family has a tendency to kill laptops but even they have not been successful to kill these things yet. Who should NOT get this laptop: 1- You are going to use it for gaming 2- You need to tons of battery life and need something really light 3- You do not need that much storage space for photos In summary: it’s a fantastic laptop and i’ll be sad when Apple stops selling it. It is getting long in the tooth in performance so that day is coming soon but this is the only machine i’ve had for 8 years and have been able to get more life out of it with some simple upgrades in RAM, Battery, or HDD.

I want to start by saying I am NOT a dedicated apple user. Using an android right now to write this. However, this computer has been the best computer of my entire life.

It has seen me through 2 college degrees and still works like the day I opened it out of the box. I purchased this exact macbook in I was skeptical because I had never owned a macbook before, but I was so frustrated with PCs. The most use I had been able to get out of a PC was 2 years. Replacing them every 2 years and never knowing when they were going to crap out was beyond frustrating and annoying.

So much so that I was willing to give Mac a try and learn a whole new operating system. I’m sooooo glad I made that leap and switched! It has survived drops, cat scratches, and saw me through nursing school where we did everything on the computer including our exams.

I will never go back to PC for any reliable needs. I see PCs now as a luxury item to only be used when you want something cheaper to play games on- not as a reliable computer that has excellent support service if something goes wrong. Apple support is amazing. It did take me about a month to figure out how to use all the mac features but it was due to me using PC my whole life and windows specifically, which says it’s user friendly, actually requires several extra steps to accomplish tasks.

For example, just to uninstall software, you have to locate it on a windows pc, use the uninstaller and even then I’ve had parts of the old programs still left behind at times. With Mac, it will find the program for you usually in apps and you just drag and drop to the trashcan. Simple things like that won me over and 7 years later, I can say I have definitely got my monies worth!

Good review, bought one based a lot on your thoughtful remarks. Will offer this – if you’re using Migration Assistant, don’t select the include software option because if Yosemite isn’t compatible with any one of your old programs you might encounter a 24 hour stall – and never know what the problem was.

So after migrating your data and settings bring your apps over one at a time manually to make sure all is cool and stay under control of the situation. One other issue – – Safari stalled unmercifully. Good luck – and enjoy the very slick new trackpad if your old one was „skiddy. It started up and ran well. It was very well pack, and the machine was in good condition.

This is a better MacBook Pro than I exspected. So far, it is doing well. I have only had it for about a month, so if it last, this will be the best laptop I ever bough. This one ran so well that I decided to upgrade it. I add 8gb of ram, and upgraded the hard drive to SSD. It took the upgrades, and it is running even better.

The performance is like that of a new Mac. For the price that I paid for the machine plus the price for the upgrades, has been well worth the cost. I am giving this one 5 stars. See all reviews. Top reviews from other countries. Translate all reviews to English. Coming in the mail with the stock GB HD and 4GB’s of ram is honestly not enough, it feels slightly outdated and sluggish, But it’s also not brand new you need to remember.

After those upgrades and buying a new black case, I feel like I have a brand new machine! One person found this helpful. MacBook Pro – Laptop itself was brand new and sealed. The laptop box was not entirely sealed – I think because it came originally from India, so they had to replace the power adapter on the charge cord with the appropriate charger for North America which they did. Turned it on to a perfect blank slate of factory settings. Very happy with the price, the prompt delivery, and immaculate condition of the laptop.

Bought this for my daughter for school, had one minor ding on the bottom but doesn’t affect the inner workings at all. She is very happy with it, works great! Model was a but totally revamped and newer programs installed. For the price, am a satisfied customer. Report abuse. Translate review to English. These projects are based on the GTK and Qt widget toolkits , respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework.

Both support a wide variety of languages. The Linux kernel is a widely ported operating system kernel, available for devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers; it runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures , including the hand-held ARM -based iPAQ and the IBM mainframes System z9 or System z The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system, such as Macintosh computers [] [] with both PowerPC and Intel processors , PDAs , video game consoles , portable music players , and mobile phones.

There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux, such as FreedomHEC. Over time, support for different hardware has improved in Linux, resulting in any off-the-shelf purchase having a „good chance” of being compatible.

In , a new initiative was launched to automatically collect a database of all tested hardware configurations. The GPL requires that anyone who distributes software based on source code under this license must make the originating source code and any modifications available to the recipient under the same terms.

Torvalds states that the Linux kernel will not move from version 2 of the GPL to version 3. A study of Red Hat Linux 7. Slightly over half of all lines of code were licensed under the GPL.

The Linux kernel itself was 2. In a later study, the same analysis was performed for Debian version 4. Della Croce, Jr. In , Torvalds and some affected organizations sued him to have the trademark assigned to Torvalds, and, in , the case was settled. Torvalds has stated that he trademarked the name only to prevent someone else from using it.

LMI originally charged a nominal sublicensing fee for use of the Linux name as part of trademarks, [] but later changed this in favor of offering a free, perpetual worldwide sublicense.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 9 August This article is about the family of operating systems. For the kernel, see Linux kernel. For other uses, see Linux disambiguation. Family of Unix-like operating systems. Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux [1]. Main article: History of Linux. Main article: Linux adoption.

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The Workspace Switcher is a menu in the upper-right corner of the Flash window, next to the search box. See the box on Create an Event Handler in a Snap for more. Using these menu choices, you can perform basic tasks like opening, saving, and printing your Flash files; cutting and pasting artwork or text; viewing your project in different ways; choosing which toolbars to view; getting help; and more.